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In ancient times most of the gems were discovered by accident adjacent to the surfaces. Over the years, the question has changed a lot but still the extraction of gems is still a bargain rather primitive, relying more on the perception and observation of intensive scientific methods. One of the most intriguing aspects of the extraction of the stones is precisely the diversity of methods and technologies used.

They range from the simplest tools like shovels and sieves up to the most modern technology such as the extraction of diamonds from the tubes (through paths that connect the volcanic depths of the earth with the mantle surface). Despite this still are patience, perseverance and hard work the best weapons used for the discovery and extraction of colored gemstones. They are known several caves and caverns where it was and it is still possible to extract interesting materials, including the oldest are the cave of the Lion in Swaziland, caves in the Netherlands and Hungary, the famous mine operated by the ancient Egyptians at Wady Maghareh in the peninsula of Sinai and many others.

Extractions alluvial
The most common method for the extraction is surely to extract gems from secondary deposits by flooding. They are called secondary deposits because the gems are not found in rocks that were formed originally but in deposits formed through weathering and erosion of primary deposits. Whether the use with hand tools or by industrial machinery, mining is based on the movement of the earth, which is then washed and passed until you find the famous colored gemstones. It comes from if that is a very long and tiring and it is not at all sure the success of the operation.

Very often the extraction by floods provides the ability to find different types of gems and stones is easy to find, called tracers, indicating good security with the presence of other types of gems. Although the precious stones found by alluvial deposits tend to be scratched, cracked, and significantly changed due to the atmospheric processes that have had to endure this does not detract from the fact that the amount of gems you will find in this way generally exceeds the results obtained with the collection of deposits primary deposits.

Extractions from rocky deposits

The extraction from primary deposits is done by hand tools, pneumatic tools, and sometimes with explosives. These methods are used directly in underground tunnels and caves. Depending on the hardness of the raw material, the extraction from the primary rock may be relatively simple or very complicated. While some gems are removed with picks and tips, many times it is necessary to crush the walls and select the quality of the resulting gems. Very interesting example is the method of extraction of diamonds. It uses a slightly inclined table covered with fat. On it is passed the pile of debris and diamonds, being waterproof, remain bound to the fat while the other materials continue their descent.
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