Antique is from the Latin word "antquis”, meaning "classic”. The approximate number of facets of an Antique Cushion cut gemstone is 64.
The Antique Cushion cut is also known as "The Old Miner” or "Old European” cut, because it looks like a cross between a deep cut with large facets that was common in the late 19th and the early 20th centuries and a modern Oval cut. As it looks somewhat like a sofa cushion, the word "Cushion” is typically used in combination with "Antique” but not exclusively.
This shape is also sometimes referred to as the "Pillow” cut (for obvious reasons) or the "Candlelight” cut in reference to cuts designed prior to electric lights, when gems sparkled in the light provided by candles.
It has a marvelously romantic and classic look that stands out from other cuts. Along with the Princess cut, the Antique Cushion cut maximizes a gem’s luster. It is a primary cut first used on Ruby and Sapphire faceted in Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
Baguette is from the Italian word "bacchetta”, meaning "rod or stick”. The approximate number of facets of a Baguette cut gemstone is 20. The Baguette shaped gemstone is really only a special oblong shape.
Most oblong cuts are "step” cut, which means that the facets on the pavilion have been cut in steps, parallel to the edges, in the manner of a pyramid with its top chopped off. The base and table are square with triangular facets.
The Baguette cut best suits gem types that have rough in this shape such as Tourmaline.
To the Native American Navajo, the rectangle symbolizes the female form, intelligence and divine contemplation.
The cut is called at the table and steps and does not follow particular rules as the number of faces. Rule instead important is the proportion between the upper and the lower which is always of about 1:2 or slightly more, as in the other cuts.
They thus have an upper part and a lower part that are encountered on the belt, the shape of this is varied: square, rectangular, hexagonal, octagonal.
The upper part consists of a large table whose outline shape is equal to that of the belt; table and belt are joined by 2 or 3 orders of facets, of the same height in the various orders, in the form of trapezoids with the longer side (length ) towards the belt and its parallel to the table. Often, however, the various orders of veneers are degrading heights from the outskirts to the table.
The lower part consists of a greater number of orders of veneers (also 5), all of the same height, and the lower table or is absent or is very small.
Presents some stone at the top, between the belt and the board, not a series of steps but the facets arranged in brilliant so as to give greater vitality to the stone: this mixed form of cutting, however, does not benefit the value of the stone.
The cuts are the most popular ones with belt octagonal outline, the octagon however, should not be overly pronounced so that the stone appears almost rectangular. The stones so cut consist of 48 facets, or 56, plus a large octagonal table in the upper part. The faces of the lower part often converge on a facet elongated octagonal, but generally about one edge.
|ROUND brilliant |
Round is from the Middle English word "rounden”, which means "secret”. The Round Brilliant cut is also known as the Round cut, American Ideal cut or American Standard cut.
The standard number of facets of a Round Brilliant cut gemstone is 57.
Although no single inventor has officially been credited with the invention of the Round Brilliant cut, many sources do credit a Venetian cutter named Vincenzio Perruzzi and date the Brilliant's introduction to the 18th century.
The Russian mathematical genius Marcel Tolkowsky, a member of a large and powerful Diamond family, subsequently calculated the cuts necessary to create the ideal Diamond shape. As part of his PhD thesis in mathematics, Tolkowsky considered variables such as the index of refraction and covalent bond angles to describe what has become known as the Round Brilliant cut.
Tolkowsky's recommended cut height for a Round Brilliant is 58% that of the diameter of the Diamond, which breaks down to about 43% for the pavilion, and 14% for the height of the crown. This 58% is probably the most crucial dimension of the gem.
This cut is optically the most efficient. The Round Brilliant boasts one of the best recoveries for well shaped Diamond and gemstone rough; this translates into good value for consumers.
The Round Brilliant cut is designed to provide maximum optics for brilliance and scintillation, making the gem sparkle and dance in the light.
This cut was specially developed for Diamonds but is today common for all gem types.
Square is from the Vulgar Latin word "exquadra” meaning "square shape”. The standard number of facets of a Square cut gemstone is 57. The Square shaped gemstone is really only a special oblong shape where the sides are the same length.
Most oblong cuts are "step” cut, which means that the facets on the pavilion have been cut in steps, parallel to the edges, in the manner of a pyramid with its top chopped off.
Some believe this cut is a symbol for equality, fair mindedness, justice, order, satisfaction and truth.
The standard number of facets of a Heart Shape cut gemstone is 59. The Heart Shape is a pear-shaped gemstone or Diamond with a cleft at the top.
Generally, a Heart Shape's length to width ratio is slightly over 1:1, approximately 1.1:1 in favor of length, but usually not over 1.2:1. The heart is the ultimate symbol of love. Most Heart Shape cut gems are nearly round. This has the advantage of having a nearly round pavilion that provides beautiful brilliance.
Most Heart Shape cuts are purchased as single gems. Solitaire rings are set with hearts throughout the range of sizes. After necklaces and rings, most Heart Shape cuts are sold as matched pairs for stud earrings. The primary market for Hearts is for luxury jewelry. There is heavy interest in the Heart Shape cut in the Far East.
Hearts must be extremely well cut which makes them more expensive because excellent proportions result from a greater expenditure of rough. Understandably, noticeable increases in sales of Heart Shape cut gems occur around Valentine's Day.
As with all fancy cuts, buyers of Hearts should look first at the overall make. The first question to ask is "do I find the gem pleasing to the eye?”
Generally, look for a balanced shape, avoiding extremes. Lobes should be rounded, and the cleft should be relatively sharp and distinct.
The standard number of facets of a Marquise cut gemstone is 57. The Marquise cut is also known as the "Navette” shape and looks like a long oval that has been stretched out to a point at each end like a rugby ball viewed straight down from the top.
The general ratio of length to width should be 2:1. It is important that the Marquise cut gem not be too shallow or light will pass through the back of the gem diminishing its brilliance and color. However, as with all colored gems, this can vary from type to type.
Marquise cut provides good brilliance and color. It is gorgeous when used as a solitaire or when enhanced by smaller gems.
Did you know?
The Marquise cut was inspired by the fetching smile of the Marquise de Pompadour and commissioned by the Sun King, France's Louis XIV, who wanted a Diamond to match the smile.
The standard number of facets of an Octagon cut gemstone is 53. This is another "step” cut but with the four corners metered. The facets run in steps parallel to the gemstone circumference. This cut is differentiated from the Emerald cut by steps on the pavilion that are not equidistant.
With this cut, color plays a very important role in the beauty of the gemstone. Color tends to show very dramatically in Octagon cut gemstones.
Oval is from the Latin word "vum” meaning "egg”. The standard number of facets of an Oval cut gemstone is 69. The Oval cut has an elliptical shape when viewed from the top.
For the Oval cut, the ratio of the length to the width should be approximately 2:1, although this does vary slightly depending on the optical properties of different gem types.
A well cut Oval gemstone can be nearly as bright as a Round Brilliant cut.
The Oval cut is a particularly beautiful shape and if well proportioned gives great scintillation and fire.
The Princess cut generally has 76 facets. The Princess cut, technically known as "Square Modified Brilliant” cut, is a square version of the Round Brilliant cut with numerous sparkling facets.
Depth percentages of 70% to 78% are not uncommon. The Princess cut is a "Brilliant Style” shape with sharp, uncut corners. The "Brilliant Style” refers to the vertical direction of the crown and pavilion facets.
It is a relatively new cut and often finds its way into solitaire engagement rings. Flattering to a hand with long fingers, it is often embellished with triangular stones at its sides. Because of its design, this cut requires more weight to be directed toward the gem's depth in order to maximize brilliance.
The advantages of the Princess cut are not restricted purely to Diamonds; it is also used on many other gemstones.
Because of the extra faceting, and the effects this produces, Princess cuts are naturally more brilliant and sparkly. The Princess cut generally works best with lighter colored transparent gemstones. Along with the Antique Cushion cut, the Princess cut maximizes a gem’s luster.
The Princess cut was designed for weight retention of octahedral Diamond crystals, helping to create more attractive Diamonds at more reasonable prices.
The Barion cut was the forerunner of the Princess cut and was invented about 30 years ago by Basil Watermeyer of Johannesburg. The Barion cut has been the subject of patents that have expired within the past ten years and this has led to the greater availability of similarly cut gemstones. The style now known as the "Princess” cut has become a generic style of cutting.
According to Harold Newman's "Illustrated Dictionary of Jewelry”, the term Princess cut was previously applied to what is now known as the "Profile” cut developed by Arpad Nagy of London in 1961.
The standard number of facets of a Trilliant cut gemstone is 43. Trilliant cut gemstones are based on a triangular shape. Usually with truncated corners and displaying a variety of facet designs, this cut creates a spectacular wedge of brilliant fire.
The tips and culets of Trilliants are pointed and thin. Some jewelers only bezel-set Trilliants, though prongs that protect the tips work well and show more of the gem.
As you look down through the gem, the culet generally appears centered in the middle of the table showing the pavilion of the gem with an attention to symmetry. When you examine the gem in profile, the girdle and table facet are generally parallel. The pavilion’s main facet usually extends from the culet perpendicularly until it intersects the girdle.
Because of their equilateral form, Trilliants return lots of light and color. They are considered nearly as brilliant as Round cuts, so they are a great choice for customers who like brilliance but want something other than round. Variations include rounded-corner triangles, modified shield cuts and triangular step cuts.
There should be as few polishing marks as possible and the surface should appear glossy and reflective. Good polishing helps maximize brilliance and scintillation in Trilliants.
Trilliants work well with light-colored gems – such as Diamonds, Aquamarines, Beryl’s and White Sapphires – where cutters try to maximize brilliance.
Inversely, some cutters use Trilliants to effectively lighten and brighten the appearance of darker gems such as Tanzanite, Spessartite Garnet, Rhodolite Garnet and Amethyst.
First developed in Amsterdam, the exact design can vary depending on a particular gem’s natural characteristics and the cutter's personal preferences. It may be a traditional triangular shape with pointed corners or a more rounded triangular shape with 25 facets on the crown, 19 facets on the pavilion and a polished girdle.
Did you know?
Some twinned (a crystal growing within a crystal) Diamond rough is naturally triangular (called "Macle”) and is ideal for Trilliants.
The standard number of facets of a Pear cut gemstone is 71. A hybrid cut, combining the best of the Oval and the Marquise, it is shaped like a sparkling teardrop.
A nice Pear cut is generally one that is well cut with a polished girdle. Although it varies depending on the optical properties of each gem type, Pear cuts should generally have a good depth such as 1.5:1 aspect ratio for a great look and a lively gem.
For rings, this cut compliments a hand with small or average length fingers. It is particularly beautiful for pendants and earrings.
Color also shows fairly dramatically in a Pear cut gemstone.
Did you know?
The world's largest cut Diamond (the Cullinan I mounted in the British Royal Scepter) is a Pear cut.